Cases of Verbs

Verb conjugation in Hebrew into transitive and intransitive cases is at best imprecise approximation. Rather, verb conjugation in Hebrew is subjected to intensity of participation.

The intensity of participation of Hebrew verbs is actually a spectrum which can roughly be stratified into four levels.
  1. stative
  2. participative
  3. causative
  4. reflexive

Each of the first three levels (excluding reflexive) has two indirections
  1. active
  2. passive

The four cases of participation are
  1. פעל-נפעל
  2. פיעל-פועל
  3. היפעל-הופעל
  4. התפעל
There are no distinct boundaries correlating the four levels with the four cases of participation. Therefore, conjugation of verb cases in Hebrew is approximate, precise but not exact. However, there is a general trend for the following correlation. The intensity of participation increases down the list.

 Case   Level of Participation
  Hypothetical Example
(in present tense/participle
 פָעַל   Stative active.
  I remember/recall.
I learn.
I kill.
  Rare cases of stative passive.

 נִפְעַל   Stative passive.

  I am remembered.
It is being learned.
I am killed.

  Rare cases of stative active.   I reminisce.
 פִיעֵל 1
  Participative active

  I kill someone.
 פוּעֵל 1
  Participative passive

  I am killed by someone.
 פִיעֵל 2
  Lesser Causative active

  I remind - I cause (someone) to remember.
I teach - I cause (someone) to learn.
 פוּעֵל 2

  Lesser Causative passive

  I am reminded.
I am taught.
 הִפְעִיל 1   Higher Participative active

  I slaughter (intransitive).
I slaughter people.

 הוּפְעַל 1
  Higher Participative passive

  My village is slaughtered (intransitive).
My village is slaughtered by someone.
 הִפְעִיל 2   Causative active   I mention someone -
I remind that someone is to be remembered.
 הוּפְעַל 2

  Causative passive   I am mentioned.
 הִתְפַעֵל   Reflexive
  We remember ourselves.
We see ourselves = we meet.

The computers connect.

Grammatical Term
Indefinite time and/or target.
Transitive active Action defines a target
Intransitive active
Action does not define a target
Transitive passive Action on subject defines a source
Intransitive passive Action on subject does not define a source
Perform action on oneself/selves